TOPIC: BACK TO BASICS: ADVANCING ATTACK LINES
TIME REQUIRED: THREE HOURS
MATERIALS: TWO FULLY EQUIPPED PUMPER, STRUCTURE FOR USE IN ADVANCING HOSE
REFERENCES: ESSENTIALS OF FIRE FIGHTING, FOURTH EDITION, IFSTA, CHAPTERS 12 AND 13 AND PAGES 521-529
MOTIVATION: Basic skills should be second-nature to each and every firefighter; however, the little things that go along with performing those skills can result in firefighters getting injured or killed. Performing those skills as a team will result in a more efficient operation and better service being provided.
OBJECTIVE (SPO): The firefighter will demonstrate a general understanding of the various methods of advancing an attack line into a structure and the basic principles of fire attack.
ADVANCING ATTACK LINES
* Introduction to Attack Lines
* Advancing Attack Lines
* Fire Attack
ADVANCING ATTACK LINES
SPO: The firefighter will demonstrate a general understanding of the various methods of advancing an attack line into a structure and the basic principles of fire attack.
EO 1-1 Explain the application and use of attack lines.
EO 1-2 Demonstrate advancing attack lines into a structure.
EO 1-3 Demonstrate a basic knowledge related to the placement of fire streams at structural fires.
The purpose of this drill is to review and build on basic skills with the emphasis on improving efficiency and teamwork. It is assumed that the participants have some basic knowledge of the subject matter. The focus of the drill should include personal and team safety. The drill should include minimal instruction and maximum skills practice. The drill should also be conducted with the normal staffing that would respond on an engine on a structure assignment.
I. INTRODUCTION TO ATTACK LINES (1-1)
A. Use and Application of Attack Lines
1. Consist of hoselines of 1-1/2-inch, 1-3/4-inch, 2-inch, and 2-1/2-inch
2. Generally pre-connected to the apparatus and equipped with a nozzle
3. In lengths of at least 150 feet
1. Combination nozzle - adjustable patterns from straight stream to wide angle fog; may have
adjustable flow by adjustment ring or automatic flow with variable flow based on nozzle pressure
- flow from 65 to 350 GPM
2. Solid stream nozzle - smooth bore tip for straight stream; may have multiple tips for different
flows - flow from 150 to 350 GPM
C. Hose Line Selection
1. Engine company must be considerate of limitations of various sizes of hose
2. In addition to flow limitation, there is factor known as friction loss which affects fire flows
a. Loss of pressure within hose line due to internal resistance of water against hose lining
b. Friction loss affected by three factors
2) Hose length
3) Size of hose
c. Should be consideration to engine company crew when selecting attack lines which must be
stretched over long distances
d. 1-1/2-inch, 1-3/4-inch, and 2-inch attack lines should not exceed 300 feet in length
e. 2-1/2-inch attack lines should not exceed 500 feet
f. When lengths of attack line beyond those recommended are required, consideration should
be given to using 3-inch, 4-inch, or 5-inch hose to get water closer to the fire scene and
dividing the flow into more manageable size attack lines using wyes or manifolds (leader line)
3. Range of nozzle flows for combination nozzles with recommended nozzle pressure of 100 psi
a. 1-1/2-inch30 gpm to 125 gpm
b. 1-3/4-inch/2-inch95 gpm to 200 gpm