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This University of Extrication multi-part series comes right from the headlines of today’s newspapers. The topic being addressed is what vehicle engineers call “thermal events” involving liquid-cooled, high-voltage, lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the Chevrolet VOLT extended-range, plug-in electric vehicle has come under close scrutiny because the VOLT was either a point of fire origin or an innocent victim in a series of fire situations that began occurring as early as May 2011 across the U.S.
Now that the smoke has literally cleared and the investigations and research have concluded, it’s time for fire service responders to understand the truth behind what happened at these VOLT fires and how these incidents show us that changes in our current procedures and training for hybrid or electric plug-in vehicles at incident scenes will be necessary.
The Chevrolet VOLT is the car that has been looked at most closely by government agencies, the news media and the public recently. It is therefore the vehicle that is discussed in this series of University of Extrication columns. It is not, however, the only vehicle on the road today that uses this one particular type of high-voltage battery system. In this first University of Extrication column, we will dissect the VOLT’s battery to better understand how it is designed to function. Part 2 will discuss the actual fire incidents that occurred involving the VOLT, and Part 3 will look at changes and recommendations to first and second responders for dealing with this new generation of high-voltage battery system.
Use in hybrid vehicles
Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles, the ones that we as responders are most familiar with, use high-voltage batteries as a component of their operating system. Originally, these hybrid vehicle batteries were all of the nickel-metal hydride type, beginning with the original Honda Insight and the first-generation Toyota Prius. In these early years, responders studied the variety of hybrid vehicle emergency guidelines and became comfortable with how to deal with these vehicles in collision or fire incidents. After 10 years and hundreds of thousands of hybrids being produced and sold, when the 2011 model-year vehicles rolled out, a new classification of vehicle appeared that introduced a new challenge for responders: the electric plug-in vehicle.
The Nissan LEAF and the Chevrolet VOLT are on the streets today and throughout the first year of their existence, firefighters across the country trained on these vehicles through national programs such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Electric Vehicle Safety Training classes. We all thought we had them figured out. Then suddenly, “thermal events” occurred with the Chevrolet VOLT that caught media and government attention and have resulted in recommended new guidelines that differ slightly from what we originally believed were appropriate electric-vehicle protocols.
Both the LEAF and the VOLT use large, high-voltage batteries to power their vehicles, but instead of being of the familiar nickel-metal hydride chemistry, these new vehicles contain lithium-ion chemistry batteries. This new chemistry gives the automaker a longer-duration battery; consider it a battery that holds a longer-lasting charge.
One important requirement for getting the best performance out of the new-generation lithium-ion battery is that the cells of the battery must be maintained within a critical temperature range – not too hot and not too cold. To cool the battery in the LEAF, Nissan designed an air-cooled battery system. Chevrolet, on the other hand, designed its lithium-ion battery to be cooled with liquid. The liquid that circulates within the battery enclosure on the VOLT is ethylene glycol – essentially 6.3 quarts of antifreeze.
Before we can understand these “thermal events” that occurred, we must first understand how the VOLT’s battery is designed and constructed. To do that, we will use an artist’s rendering of a cutaway VOLT battery.